Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a separation technique that’s appropriate for a variety of functions, particularly when salt and/or dissolved solids must be faraway from an answer. It is likely certainly one of the most typical kinds of water remedy.
According to Anelia Hough, water treatment advisor at Allmech, main South African producer of boilers and provider of water therapy parts, there are several elements to be thought of when selecting an RO system: the customer’s capability requirement (i.e. water usage), the every day production capacity of the system, and the % rejection for specific contaminants in the source water.
“Beyond this, RO crops require proper upkeep and care to make sure they function optimally and to extend their lifespan,” she says. “Aside from regular upkeep, one of the simplest ways to guard a RO plant is by pre-treating water, which reduces the strain on the RO membrane – a pricey element. It also helps to keep away from issues like scaling and bio-fouling.”
Common Issues with RO Plants
“Factors that may affect a RO system’s efficiency embody temperature, operating pressure, again stress, the equilibrium effect/TDS creep, percent recovery, and, of course, the RO membrane’s permeate production and percent rejection scores,” says Hough.
The most typical points in RO crops embrace:
• Fouling: happens when contaminants accumulate on the membrane surface, effectively plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water which are harmless for human consumption, however giant enough to quickly foul (or plug) an RO system.
• Scaling: when particles are deposited on a membrane, inflicting it to plug. As certain dissolved compounds turn into extra concentrated, scaling can occur if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane surface as scale. Scaling calculations are usually only primarily based on the silicate focus within the feed water.
• Biofouling: reduces actual membrane efficiency through microbial era in a biofilm that forms on the membrane surface.
• Chemical damage: on a RO membrane, this implies the next permeate circulate and poorer high quality permeate water. Dosing of oxidant agents, similar to chlorine or hypochlorite, can scale back performance and in the end end result in the failure of the RO membranes. Use of aggressive cleaners also can trigger chemical injury.
• Mechanical injury: can happen when a system is pressurised too shortly, damaging the RO membrane elements. One of probably the most clears indicators of damages on a RO membrane is the dearth of salt rejection capabilities. There is also very often an increase of permeate circulate price.
Pre-treatment may help to keep away from these issues, and Hough says there are numerous choices obtainable.
Pre-treatment Options
“When choosing a pre-filter, users ought to always search for a verified efficiency score next to the micron size on the filter’s technical data sheet,” says Hough.
• Multi Media Filtration: A multi-media filter is used to assist prevent fouling of a RO system. This sort of sediment filtration is ideal for a pre-treatment course of to any reverse osmosis system helping to make sure lengthy lifetime of the RO membrane components. A properly operated multimedia filter can remove particulates down to twenty microns. A multimedia filter that makes use of a coagulant addition can remove particulates down to 10 microns.
• Micro Filtration: The filters used in microfiltration have a pore dimension of approximately 0.1 micron. Bacteria and suspended solids are the only factor that can be removed through microfiltration.
• Antiscalants and scale inhibitors: There are many chemicals that can be utilized as antiscalants and dispersants to enhance the operation of RO. เกจวัดแก๊ส are a family of chemical compounds designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that form scale.
• Softening by ion trade: A water softener is a filtration system that removes hardness-causing calcium and magnesium minerals from water by way of a process referred to as ion trade. Standard water softeners are cation trade devices. Cation trade includes the replacement of the hardness ions with non-hardness ions.
• Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filtration: Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical response that includes a switch of electrons from the floor of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines find yourself as a chloride ion that’s no longer an oxidizer.
“It’s also essential to clean the RO membrane often,” says Hough. “This involves low and high pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. We tackle scaling with low pH cleaners and organics, whereas colloidal and biofouling are treated with a excessive pH cleaner.”
Allmech offers the complete range of pre-treatment and RO membrane maintenance options for RO crops, including filtration methods, softeners, antiscalants, chemical compounds and different consumables.
“At Allmech, we’re looking forward to growing this a part of our business in 2022 and past, leveraging our experience in all issues related to water remedy. We also have a boiler division and we inventory a comprehensive vary of Runxin valves, so we’re well positioned to be a one-stop store for anyone needing a water treatment or boiler specialist, and we’re anticipating a busy year forward,” Hough says.

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